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SITIO WEB OFICIAL

Billetes en euros

FABRICACIÓN

Los bancos centrales nacionales (BCN) de la zona del euro y el Banco Central Europeo deciden los volúmenes anuales de producción de billetes en euros en función de la necesidad de sustituir los billetes no aptos y la demanda de efectivo.


Trabajo en equipo

La producción de los billetes en euros es un esfuerzo combinado de los BCN y el Banco Central Europeo (BCE). Comienza con el cálculo del número de billetes que se necesitan cada año. El número de billetes nuevos que se fabrique debe ser suficiente para sustituir los billetes no aptos, satisfacer los aumentos de la demanda previstos, por ejemplo, los máximos estacionales, y hacer frente a los aumentos de demanda imprevistos.

Las previsiones de demanda de billetes en euros relativas al año siguiente son elaboradas por los BCN, y el BCE calcula una previsión central.

Impresión descentralizada

Para producir los billetes en euros de manera eficiente, los distintos BCN comparten las tareas de impresión. El BCE asigna volúmenes de producción a algunos BCN, que a continuación suministran una determinada proporción de la producción anual total de una o más denominaciones. Por ejemplo, los bancos centrales de Bélgica, Alemania, Italia y España produjeron 1.500 millones de billetes de 50€ en 2012.

Calidad y seguridad homogéneas

La producción se distribuye entre unas dieciséis fábricas de alta seguridad repartidas por Europa. Los billetes son distribuidos a continuación entre los distintos BCN.

Esta producción mancomunada y un sistema común de gestión de calidad aseguran un nivel de calidad uniforme para todos los billetes en euros. Durante el proceso de fabricación, se llevan a cabo cientos de comprobaciones manuales y automáticas para garantizar que los billetes de todas las imprentas sean idénticos.

Redistribución en caso necesario

Los billetes en euros no suelen permanecer en el país en que fueron emitidos. Las personas que viajan por negocios o vacaciones los llevan a otros países de la zona del euro y los gastan allí. Bajo la supervisión del BCE, los BCN redistribuyen los billetes para evitar escaseces o excedentes en un país.


Varias técnicas de impresión

Al igual que los billetes de la primera serie, los de la serie Europa se imprimirán en papel a base de fibras de algodón puro, que les confiere su especial firmeza y una resistencia al desgaste mayor que la del papel normal. Algunos elementos de seguridad, como las marcas de agua y los hilos embebidos, forman parte del propio papel.

Se utilizan distintos tipos de planchas, tintas especiales y varias técnicas: la impresión offset y la impresión calcográfica, la estampación en caliente del holograma y la serigrafía para los números que cambian de color.

Eche un vistazo a la producción del billete de 5€ de la serie Europa.


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